Cringe | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. Step right up! Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ ✿Twitter: [canceled] ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿ContraPoints Live: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGh4KSR8TZZlyq3qQDBsBLA Florence Foster Jenkins’ copyrighted singing: https://youtu.be/V6ubiUIxbWE Check out my other videos: Shame: https://youtu.be/K7WvHTl_Q7I Canceling: https://youtu.be/OjMPJVmXxV8 Opulence: https://youtu.be/jD-PbF3ywGo Men: https://youtu.be/S1xxcKCGljY Transtrenders: https://youtu.be/EdvM_pRfuFM Beauty: https://youtu.be/n9mspMJTNEY Gender Critical: https://youtu.be/1pTPuoGjQsI The Darkness: https://youtu.be/qtj7LDYaufM "Are Traps…

The Alt-Right Playbook: I Hate Mondays

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: https://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/614651531972788224/the-alt-right-playbook-returns-triumphantly-with-a research: https://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630744222/research-masterpost sources: There’s no point improving healthcare because we’re all gonna die anyway: https://youtu.be/8QSX9fEDllo Illegalizing abortion doesn’t lower abortion rates but access to contraceptives does: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/24/want-to-lower-the-abortion-rate-support-pro-choice-policies "You can’t regulate evil": https://www.courier-journal.com/story/news/politics/2017/10/02/gov-bevin-sends-message-vegas-shootingto-political-opportunists-vegas-shooting-you-cant-regulate-evi/724286001/ Gun crime since gun control in the UK: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/firearms-act-twenty-years-on-has-it-made-a-difference-dunblane-port-arthur-a8110911.html Gun crime since…

Shame | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. Oops, I’m gay. Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints Read the transcript of this video here: https://www.contrapoints.com/shame ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ ✿Twitter: [canceled] ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿ContraPoints Live: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGh4KSR8TZZlyq3qQDBsBLA Am I a Lesbian Masterdoc: https://docs.google.com/document/d/e/2PACX-1vT3f5IIzt5PG-M7G9_Z-gjY4gZaiUneTdMlYrFAcdBGcJo0-N-RDQcj2JfxOaBTxKa6J_DiDQNgqVpg/pub Check out my other videos: Canceling: https://youtu.be/OjMPJVmXxV8 Opulence: https://youtu.be/jD-PbF3ywGo Men: https://youtu.be/S1xxcKCGljY Transtrenders: https://youtu.be/EdvM_pRfuFM Beauty: https://youtu.be/n9mspMJTNEY Gender Critical:…

State of the Union 2020 | Group Therapy

From Knowing Better. Live commentary, fact checking, and nervous breakdowns for President Donald Trump’s 2020 State of the Union address. Recorded on February 4th, 2020. — Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt Twitter ► https://twitter.com/KnowingBetterYT Facebook ► https://facebook.com/KnowingBetterYT/ Instagram ► https://instagram.com/knowingbetteryt Reddit ► https://reddit.com/r/KnowingBetter/ — #StateoftheUnion…

Why We Thought ‘Friday’ Stunk

From Counter Arguments. A point of view regarding a debatable topic. Topic: The infamy of the song/music video ‘Friday’ sung by Rebecca Black. Opinion: The story of this viral video represents the end of the early age of YouTube as well as how much the platform (and the people who use it) have grown since.…

Canceling | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. The Truth. Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints Read the transcript here: https://www.contrapoints.com/canceling ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Twitter: [canceled] ref_id=5379&utm_campaign=ContraPoints&utm_medium=5379&utm_source=affiliate ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ Trashing: https://www.jofreeman.com/joreen/trashing.htm My critics: https://youtu.be/PwUraFNpQIE https://youtu.be/iRMLgQsKgnw Check out my other videos: Opulence: https://youtu.be/jD-PbF3ywGo Men: https://youtu.be/S1xxcKCGljY Transtrenders: https://youtu.be/EdvM_pRfuFM Beauty: https://youtu.be/n9mspMJTNEY Gender Critical: https://youtu.be/1pTPuoGjQsI The Darkness: https://youtu.be/qtj7LDYaufM "Are Traps Gay?": https://youtu.be/PbBzhqJK3bg…

Influencing an Election | Campaign Finance

From Knowing Better. With our never-ending election cycle, the constant state of political advertising is rightfully under scrutiny. Check out CuriosityStream at http://www.curiositystream.com/knowingbetter Get a free subscription to Nebula and use the promo code "knowingbetter" for your first month free! Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt…

Boomer Advice

From Counter Arguments. An argument about a particular topic. The Baby Boomer Generation is the generation after World War II; those born between 1946-1964. Generation Z is the youngest recorded generation; those born between 1996-2012. Apparently, they don’t get along. The Argument: One of the reasons why Baby Boomers usually clash with Generations Y and…

Obeying Authority | Unethical Psychology

From Knowing Better. Unethical experiments of the past have taught us much about Psychology, but one major study has been used to defend some of the worst abusers of authority. Try Skillshare for two months for free by going to http://skl.sh/knowingbetter12 Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ►…

Pennsylvania Station

From Counter Arguments. A point of view regarding a debatable topic. Topic: Pennsylvania Station in New York City. This is a story of an American building – how it was built, why it was lost, what is left of it today, and how each chapter has reflected the country that it stood in. Music by…

Endnote 4: How the Alt-Right is Like an Abusive Relationship (live)

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: https://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/189431737492/the-newest-installment-of-the-alt-right-playbook research: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630744222/research-masterpost Solidarity Lowell: http://solidaritylowell.com/ Book reference: Alt-America, by David Neiwert Healing from Hate, by Michael Kimmel Terror, Love and Brainwashing, by Alexandra Stein Research reference: Contact Hypothesis: https://www.facinghistory.org/sounds-change/gordon-allports-contact-hypothesis Attachment Styles: https://www.evergreenpsychotherapycenter.com/styles-adult-attachment/ Parasocial Contact Hypothesis: https://cmsw.mit.edu/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/The-Parasocial-Contact-Hypothesis.pdf Parasocial Relationships: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLA-uFKjQ-g Alternative Influence Network: https://datasociety.net/output/alternative-influence/ The…

Will Middle Class Taxes Go Up?

From Counter Arguments. An argument regarding a certain answer to a certain questions. When a Presidential candidate is asked a question, and they believe that a straightforward answer will be used against them, they may avoid the question instead. The question is, is this a smart strategy? Or can the dodge of the question hurt…

Starting A Sentence With “So”

From Counter Arguments. A point of view regarding a debatable topic. Topic: Starting a sentence with the word "So". Opinion: It’s unnecessary and annoying… sometimes. T1J: https://youtu.be/yw8X3zYf5Tk?t=65 Elizabeth Warren: https://youtu.be/2UWVO0Trd1c?t=1086 Jennifer Lawrence: https://youtu.be/NWdc7PyZNLA?t=183 Tim Urban: https://youtu.be/arj7oStGLkU?t=9 Taylor Swift: https://youtu.be/FvVnP8G6ITs?t=374 Jordan Peterson: https://youtu.be/KjpuxiV-_Es?t=349 Mark Normand: https://youtu.be/ig1M6wMx5fU?t=361 TWEET: https://twitter.com/counterarguing POST: https://www.facebook.com/CounterArguments BUY: https://teespring.com/stores/counterarguments DONATE: https://www.paypal.me/counterarguments EMAIL: countertheargument@gmail.com

A Veteran’s Story on Veterans Day

From Knowing Better. Knowing Better opens up about his military experience. Try Skillshare for two months for free by going to http://skl.sh/knowingbetter13 Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt Twitter ► https://twitter.com/KnowingBetterYT Facebook ► https://facebook.com/KnowingBetterYT/ Instagram ► https://instagram.com/knowingbetteryt Reddit ► https://reddit.com/r/KnowingBetter/ — The Last Stand of the…

Healthcare | The Complete Moderate’s Guide

From Knowing Better. American healthcare is like no other on Earth – needlessly complicated, expensive, and ready for reform. Check out CuriosityStream at http://www.curiositystream.com/knowingbetter Use the promo code "knowingbetter" for your first month free! Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt Twitter ► https://twitter.com/KnowingBetterYT Facebook ► https://facebook.com/KnowingBetterYT/…

The Alt-Right Playbook: How to Radicalize a Normie

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: https://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/188501365677/heres-how-to-radicalize-a-normie-a-video-essay research: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630744222/research-masterpost Primary sources for this video were: Alt-America, by David Neiwert Healing from Hate, by Michael Kimmel* Terror, Love and Brainwashing, by Alexandra Stein *Kimmel’s book was purchased before the sexual harassment accusations against him were made; the book is good but I…

The 3rd Democratic Debate

From Counter Arguments. An argument regarding certain answers to certain questions. Approaching a Presidential election, the candidates of a major political party participated in a debate televised on ABC. Some of the questions asked were not given simple, straight answers. Let’s examine a few of them to understand exactly how the questions were sidestepped. ABC…

Opulence | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. The aesthetic of owning everything. Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ref_id=5379&utm_campaign=ContraPoints&utm_medium=5379&utm_source=affiliate ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿ContraPoints Live: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGh4KSR8TZZlyq3qQDBsBLA ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ With music by by Zoë Blade: http://www.zoeblade.com/ With music by OVXX: https://soundcloud.com/poorpupperdrinksbleach/opulence Dan Bell’s Dead Mall Series: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNz4Un92pGNxQ9vNgmnCx7dwchPJGJ3IQ Todd in the Shadows "7 Rings" Review: https://youtu.be/os8RpkipUz0 Voices Shon Faye: @shonfaye…

If You Don’t Have Anything Nice To Say, Don’t Say Anything At All

From Counter Arguments. The Argument: If you don’t have anything nice to say, don’t say anything at all. This is a general statement, so there are multiple ways of interpreting it. Hence, it can represent multiple different arguments; a literal version – a figurative version – and a contextual version. TWEET: https://twitter.com/counterarguing POST: https://www.facebook.com/CounterArguments BUY:…

Biopics

From Counter Arguments. Biopics are motion pictures made about the biography of significant historical figures, whether it’s a summary of their entire biography or the most noteworthy part of their biography. The Argument: Biopics practically always depict the biography inaccurately, yet many people who watch biopics assume that they are accurate. It might as well…

Social Media | Personal vs Public

From Counter Arguments. An analysis of a particular debate and the arguments that have been made on each side. Social media can be – both – intimate and open. It can feel like a personal space to some, while it seems like a public outlet to others. In May of 2019, a debate was had…

Denying Your History | Armenian Genocide

From Knowing Better. The Holocaust was not the first genocide, not even the first of the 20th century, and it was inspired by an event which took place three decades earlier. Try Skillshare for two months for free by going to http://skl.sh/knowingbetter10 Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch…

Men | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. Taking the red pill, but make it fashion. Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Live Stream Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGh4KSR8TZZlyq3qQDBsBLA ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ With music by by Zoë Blade: http://www.zoeblade.com/ With music by OVXX: https://soundcloud.com/poorpupperdrinksbleach/contras-deep-house-track Check out my other videos: Transtrenders: https://youtu.be/EdvM_pRfuFM Beauty: https://youtu.be/n9mspMJTNEY Gender Critical: https://youtu.be/1pTPuoGjQsI The Darkness: https://youtu.be/qtj7LDYaufM…

Accidentally Inspiring Colonialism | Marco Polo

From Knowing Better. A merchant’s travel guide, full of misremembered facts, embellishments, and fabrications completely altered the course of history. Try Skillshare for two months for free by going to http://skl.sh/knowingbetter9 Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt Twitter ► https://twitter.com/KnowingBetterYT Facebook ► https://facebook.com/KnowingBetterYT/ Instagram ► https://instagram.com/knowingbetteryt…

When Should You Leave An Interview?

From Counter Arguments. An argument regarding certain questions and the answers which are given. When somebody decides to leave an interview, they may feel justified. The person who stays may disagree. But whose opinion counts the most when an interview is cut short? This is an argument about the power of public opinion – how…

What Do Guns & Pools Have In Common?

From Counter Arguments. An argument regarding certain answers to certain questions. Within the gun control debate, there is a popular analogy which compares firearms to swimming pools. The question is, which side of the debate would benefit the most from this analogy? Daily Show Segment: https://youtu.be/9pOiOhxujsE TWEET: https://twitter.com/counterarguing POST: https://www.facebook.com/CounterArguments BUY: https://teespring.com/stores/counterarguments DONATE: https://www.paypal.me/counterarguments EMAIL:…

Asking Better 4: The Revenge

From Knowing Better. Another year, another round of questions. Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt Twitter ► https://twitter.com/KnowingBetterYT Facebook ► https://facebook.com/KnowingBetterYT/ Instagram ► https://instagram.com/knowingbetteryt Reddit ► https://reddit.com/r/KnowingBetter/ — Thank you to BadBunny for asking all the question! http://twitch.tv/badbunny http://twitter.com/BadBunnyTwitch — Sargon of Akkad Can’t Read –…

Who Shot Guybrush Threepwood? | Genre and the Adventure Game

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: https://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/186138172217/were-talking-about-adventure-games-again-or The Berlin Interpretation of Roguelikes: http://www.roguebasin.com/index.php?title=Berlin_Interpretation Andrew Plotkin, Characterizing Interactive Fiction: https://eblong.com/zarf/essays/ifdef.html Clara Fernandez-Vara, The Tribulations of Adventure Games: https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/31756/fernandezvara_clara_200912_phd.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Dr. M. Ritchey and Mike Merrill, Is This a Sandwich?: https://medium.com/@kmikeym/is-this-a-sandwich-50b1317eb3f5 David Shute, Are Videogames [sic] Games?: https://davidshute.wordpress.com/2012/03/15/are-videogames-games/ Rick Altman, A Syntactic/Semantic Approach to…

Taking on the Red Pill | Men’s Rights Activism

From Knowing Better. The Men’s Rights Movement often portrays itself as the counterbalance to Feminism, but setting aside that rivalry, are any of their points legitimate? Check out CuriosityStream at http://www.curiositystream.com/knowingbetter Use the promo code "knowingbetter" for your first month free! Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ►…

Three Year Anniversary: Cringing at the First Year

From Knowing Better. Watching, critiquing, and cringing at videos you selected from my first year on Youtube. Survey: https://forms.gle/HpRG6wBLmZ2xayDX7 Recorded June 15, 2019 — Website ► http://knowingbetter.tv Store ► http://standard.tv/knowingbetter Patreon ► http://patreon.com/knowingbetter Paypal ► http://paypal.me/knowingbetter Twitch ► http://twitch.tv/knowingbetteryt Twitter ► https://twitter.com/KnowingBetterYT Facebook ► https://facebook.com/KnowingBetterYT/ Instagram ► https://instagram.com/knowingbetteryt Reddit ► https://reddit.com/r/KnowingBetter/

Beauty | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. Storytime: my facial plastic surgery journey Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿Live Stream Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPointsLive ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ Title song "Faceshopping" by SOPHIE Satie’s "Gymnopedie No. 1" arranged by Zoë Blade: http://www.zoeblade.com/ Other Zoë Blade tracks used: "Stalker" "Tranquility Bass" "Jukko" "Acid Serum" "Serum Pads" "Beginnings" "Dead…

Gender Critical | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. Let’s go adult human females. Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿Live Stream Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPointsLive ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ Theryn made a huge contribution to this video, from writing jokes, to hanging wallpaper, to filming B-roll and doing sound design. Here’s her channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCVasp64N6SxVD8Hf1RESi6w Original music by Zoë Blade:…

Endnote 3: The Origins of Conservatism

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630929222/a-small-supplement-to-always-a-bigger-fish-the research: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630744222/research-masterpost Neoreaction a Basilisk by Elizabeth Sandifer: https://www.amazon.com/Neoreaction-Basilisk-Essays-Around-Alt-Right-ebook/dp/B0782JDGVQ #IanLivetweetsHisResearch on The Reactionary Mind: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios/status/999722728495120385 #IanLivetweetsHisResearch on The Authoritarians: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios/status/928983350123139072 #IanLivetweetsHisResearch on How Propaganda Works: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios/status/959598105846050821 Philosophy Tube on the Labor Theory of Value: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CWF_0lkBhjY

The Alt-Right Playbook: Always a Bigger Fish

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630833477/new-episode-of-the-alt-right-playbook-called research: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630744222/research-masterpost Your Conservative Friend played by Real Good Dude Steve Shives: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCD4qMoFPUEzSn4CurFLJkIQ The primary source for this video is The Reactionary Mind by Corey Robin, which I livetweeted the entirety of here: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios/status/999722728495120385

The Darkness | ContraPoints

From ContraPoints. Some like it dark. Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/contrapoints ✿Donate: https://paypal.me/contrapoints ✿Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPoints ✿Live Stream Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/ContraPointsLive ✿Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ContraPoints/ ✿Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/contrapoints/ ✿Website: https://www.contrapoints.com/ Original music by Zoë Blade: http://www.zoeblade.com/ Check out my other videos: "Are Traps Gay?": https://youtu.be/PbBzhqJK3bg The Apocalypse: https://youtu.be/S6GodWn4XMM Pronouns: https://youtu.be/9bbINLWtMKI The Aesthetic: https://youtu.be/z1afqR5QkDM Incels: https://youtu.be/fD2briZ6fB0 The West: https://youtu.be/hyaftqCORT4 Tiffany Tumbles: https://youtu.be/j1dJ8whOM8E…

The Alt-Right Playbook: The Card Says Moops

From Innuendo Studios. patreon: http://patreon.com/InnuendoStudios tumblr: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com twitter: https://twitter.com/InnuendoStudios transcript: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/182302598987/new-video-essay-internet-reactionaries-argue-as research: http://innuendostudios.tumblr.com/post/183630744222/research-masterpost Borrowed Observation #1 – David Roberts mentions the "card says moops" scene in Seinfeld while explaining postmodern conservatism: https://grist.org/politics/david-roberts-explains-postmodern-conservatism-in-36-tweets/ Borrowed Observation #2 – Jay Allen describes chan culture: https://twitter.com/a_man_in_black/status/540095841948553217 Borrowed Observation #3 – Schrodinger’s Douchebag defined by Sally Strange (not sure who…