How Blood Evolved (Many Times)

From PBS Eons. Blood is one of the most revolutionary features in our evolutionary history. Over hundreds of millions of years, the way in which blood does its job has changed over and over again. As a result, we animals have our familiar red blood. But also blue blood. And purple, and green, and even…

When Humans Were Prey

From PBS Eons. Not too long ago, our early human ancestors were under constant threat of attack from predators. And it turns out that this difficult chapter in our history may be responsible for the adaptations that allowed us to become so successful. Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the illustrations of the…

How Sloths Went From the Seas to the Trees

From PBS Eons. The story of sloths is one of astounding ecological variability, with some foraging in the seas, others living underground, and others still hiding from predators in towering cliffs. So why are their only living relatives in the trees? Thanks to Ceri Thomas for allowing us to use few sloth reconstructions! Check out…

When Camels Roamed North America

From PBS Eons. Camels are famous for adaptations that have allowed them to flourish where most other large mammals would perish. But their story begins over 40 million years ago in North America, and in an environment you’d never expect: a rainforest.   Special thanks to Julio Lacerda, WillemSvdMerwe, and Ryan Somma for allowing us…

When Birds Stopped Flying

From PBS Eons. Support us on Patreon! http://patreon.com/eons Ratites have spread to Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America. And there are fossils of Ratites in Europe, Asia, and North America too. That’s a lot of ground to cover for birds that can’t fly. So how did Ratites end up all over the world? Thanks…

When Giant Amphibians Reigned

From PBS Eons. Try CuriosityStream today: http://curiositystream.com/eons Temnospondyls were a huge group of amphibians that existed for 210 million years. And calling them ‘diverse’ would be putting it mildly. Yet in the end, two major threats would push them to extinction: the always-changing climate and the amniote egg. Thanks to Ceri Thomas for the very…

Can We Get DNA From Fossils?

From PBS Eons. In 1993, scientists cracked open a piece of amber, took out the body of an ancient weevil, and sampled its DNA. Or, at least, so we thought. It took another few decades of research, and a lot of take-backs, before scientists could figure out how we could truly unlock the genetic secrets…

Did Raptorex Really Exist?

From PBS Eons. Try CuriosityStream today: http://curiositystream.com/eons Paleontologists have been studying and drawing totally different conclusions about the fossil LH PV18 for almost a decade. Is it just one of many specimens of a theropod called Tarbosaurus bataar or is it an entirely different theropod named Raptorex kriegsteini? In order to answer this question, you…