The Curious Case of the Solar Powered Sea Slug


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Main, Douglas, Solar-Powered Slugs Hide Wild Secrets – But They’re Vanishing, National Geographic, July 22, 2018,

Hauvurinne, Vesa & Tyystjärvi, Photosynthetic Sea Slugs Induce Protective Changes to the Light Reactions of the Chloroplasts They Steal From Algae, University of Turku, Finland, October 20, 2020,

Bhattacharya, Debashish et al, Genome Analysis of Elysia chlorotica Egg DNA Provides No Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer Into the Germ Line of this Kleptoplastic Mollusc, Molecular Biological Evolution, May 2, 2013,

Rumpho, Mary et al, Horizontal Gene Transfer of the Algal Nuclear Gene psbO to the Photosynthetic Sea Slug Elysia chlorotica, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, November 18, 2008,

Christa, Gregor et al, Plastid-Bearing Sea Slugs Fix CO2 in the Light But Do Not Require Photosynthesis to Survive, Proceedings in Biological Science, January 7, 2014,

Yong, Ed, Solar-Powered Slugs are Not Solar-Powered, National Geographic, November 19, 2013,

Brahic, Catherine, Solar-Powered Sea Slug Harnesses Stolen Plant Genes, NewScientist, November 24, 2008,

Christa, Gergor et al, Switching Off Photosynthesis: The Dark Side of Sacoglossan Slugs, Communicative & Integrative Biology, February 6, 2014,

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