The Uncertain Future of Jet Fuel

From “Real Engineering”. ( YouTube / Nebula )

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Credits:
Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus
Editor: Dylan Hennessy (https://www.behance.net/dylanhennessy1)
Animator: Mike Ridolfi (https://www.moboxgraphics.com/)
Sound: Graham Haerther (https://haerther.net/)
Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster https://twitter.com/forgottentowel

References:
[1] https://www.carbonbrief.org/aviation-consume-quarter-carbon-budget
[2] https://www.ge.com/gas-power/products/gas-turbines/lm6000
[3] http://www.ethanolproducer.com/articles/7031/ge-powers-turbines-with-ethanol-in-brazil/#:~:text=Two%20of%20GE’s%2043.5%20megawatt,to%20be%20powered%20by%20ethanol.
[4] https://www.chevron.com/-/media/chevron/operations/documents/aviation-tech-review.pdf
[5] https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/petroleum
[6] https://nwfuel.ca/whats-deal-winter-diesel/
[7] https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/w/war-damage-reports/uss-franklin-cv-13-war-damage-report-no-56.html
[8] https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ethanol-water-d_989.html &
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ethanol#:~:text=Ethanol%20appears%20as%20a%20clear,Vapors%20are%20heavier%20than%20air.
[9] https://www.engineering.iastate.edu/brl/files/2011/10/brl_biomassprop_volumetricenergydensity.pdf & https://neutrium.net/properties/specific-energy-and-energy-density-of-fuels/
[10] https://www.pnas.org/content/117/23/12576
[11] https://www.airbus.com/newsroom/press-releases/en/2021/03/aviation-leaders-launch-first-inflight-100-sustainable-aviation-fuel-emissions-study-on-commercial-passenger-jet.html
[12] https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-study-confirms-biofuels-reduce-jet-engine-pollution
[13] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-norway-airplane-biofuels/airlines-get-ready-for-jet-biofuel-take-off-in-norway-idUSKBN1XV1TQ
[14] https://simpleflying.com/sas-2019-financial-results/
[15] https://news.stanford.edu/2019/03/18/new-way-generate-hydrogen-fuel-seawater/
[16] https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage
[17] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1002007116303240#:~:text=However%2C%20hydrogen%20compression%20to%20700,L%20for%20gasoline%20%5B22%5D.
[18] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364032197000075
[19] I can’t be arsed to find a reference for this one. I have a masters degree in aeronautical engineering, just trust me.
[20] https://www.airbus.com/innovation/zero-emission/hydrogen/zeroe.html

Select imagery/video supplied by Getty Images
Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage.

Music by Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com/creator

Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung