Why Do Cicadas Stay Underground for So Long?

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Sources:

Periodical Cicada Page, The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Insect Division, https://web.archive.org/web/20110720091755/http://insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/fauna/Michigan_Cicadas/Periodical/Index.html

Smith, Jen, Brood X is Almost Here. Billions of Cicadas are Emerging in Eastern U.S, CNN, May 23, 2021, https://www.cnn.com/2021/05/23/world/cicadas-2021-emergence-scn/index.html

Levy, Max, Cicadas are Delightful Weirdos You Should Learn to Love, Smithsonian Magazine, June 3, 2020, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-are-cicadas-180975009/

Trillions of Cicadas From Brood X Set to Emerge, CBC News, May 5, 2021, https://www.cbc.ca/news/science/cicadas-brood-x-1.6014406

Damaris, Math in Nature: A Prime Life Cycle for Periodical Cicadas! Mathnasium, April 22, 2016, https://www.mathnasium.com.hk/2016/04/math-in-nature-a-prime-life-cycle-for-periodical-cicadas

Pappas, Stephanie, Prime Numbers Protect Brood X Cicadas from Everything But Zombie Fungus, Live Science, Much 26, 2021, https://www.livescience.com/periodical-cicada-prime-numbers.html

Kruszelnecki, Karl, Cicadas in Their Prime, ABC Science, November 27, 2001, https://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2001/11/27/421251.htm

Di Justo, Patrick, The Cicada’s Love Affair With Prime Numbers, The New Yorker, May 13, 2013, https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/the-cicadas-love-affair-with-prime-numbers